Background of the Study Natural gas is one of the most affordable forms of energy available to the residential consumer. In fact, natural gas has historically been a better value than electricity as a source of energy in the home. The Department of Energy (DOE) estimates that in 2011, natural gas is the lowest cost conventional energy source available for residential use. According to the DOE, natural gas costs approximately 68 percent less than the cost of electricity, per Btu (British thermal unit). In Bangladesh, 10% of total gas consumption is used in household cooking purposes. But this 10% is not available now a day. In this paper, we will discuss the problems due to the unavailability of gas and the possible solutions to make it interruptible.
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The rationale of the Study This study has high rationality since household cooking are dependent on the supply of gas very much nowadays. The interruption of gas supply makes this situation totally a mess. Due to the high value of spaces, most of the houses and flats are smaller, where people can’t arrange 2 types of cooking systems. We will try to discover the mishaps of the dwellers and possible steps that could reduce their conditions.
Objectives of the Study The major objective of this study is to analyze the characteristics of supply interruption of gas in households and possible remedies of it.
Limitations of the Study This is the first time we are doing this kind of analysis task. Because of a lack of experience and proper analyzing tools to analyze, the data analysis may not be proper.
Moreover, there is a probability that the selected sample might not fully represent the total scenario of the current situation. However, steps:
The enclosed questionnaire was prepared for data collection from the participants. Data were collected from 5 different locations that have different opinions about their problems by ourselves surveyed about it. A total of 40 dwellers was given the form and were briefed to fill out the form. All were given 2 days' time to fill the forms properly. Some were really confused about the questions as those were prepared in English. After counseling, full answers were possible to collect. The wells were abandoned though there was a reported occurrence of oil. A total of 6 exploratory wells were drilled, there was however no discovery and the Second World War disrupted further activity. The promulgation of the Pakistan Petroleum Act in 1948 introduced formal activity and infused the interest of international oil companies in oil and gas exploration. The Standard Vacuum Oil Company (STANVAC) of USA, Pakistan Petroleum Ltd. (PPL) - a Burmah Oil Company affiliate, and Pakistan Shell Oil Company (PSOC) took up concessions during the early fifties and carried out exploration till the end of sixties. These operations saw the drilling of 16 exploration wells including the first offshore well and resulted in the discovery of 7 gas fields. During this time Oil and Gas Development Corporation (OGDC) was established as the first public sector national organization in 1961 and the root of exploration for oil and gas was firmly set in the country. OGDC started to carry out geological and geophysical surveys including gravity, magnetic and seismic, and drilled wells which soon saw success After the liberation of Bangladesh, exploration activities gathered pace both by the national and international companies.
The part of OGDC that was in operation in Bangladesh was reorganized as Bangladesh Mineral Oil and Gas Corporation (Petrobangla) continued its exploration efforts while the Bangladesh Petroleum Act was enacted in 1974 to facilitate international participation under PSC. The offshore area of Bangladesh was divided into 6 blocks, which were taken up by Ashland, ARCO, BODC (Japex), Union Oil, Canadian Superior Oil, and Ina Naftaplin under production sharing contract. This phase of PSC ended with relinquishments by 1978. Since 1972 the operational mandate of Petrobangla has undergone modification several times. In 1974 oil import, refining and marketing were segregated under Bangladesh Petroleum Corporation, while the mineral operation, which was separate since 1972, was merged with oil and gas operation in 1985. Presently Bangladesh Oil Gas and Minerals Corporation short named Petrobangla operates oil and gas exploration, development, transmission, distribution, and conversion together with the development and marketing of minerals.
The first gas transmission line of the country was constructed in 1960 to supply gas to a fertilizer plant from the first gas field discovered in 1955. Over the last 40 years, this single pipeline has grown into a major network comprising of about 1832 high-pressure transmission lines of 8 inches to 30-inch diameter operating at 960 psi, supported by about 1966 km of intermediate pressure pipeline and about 13310 km of service pipelines. Till the year 2000, the gas network was limited to the eastern half of the country. This was due to the massive Jamuna river, which separates the eastern and western parts of the country. Since the completion of the almost 9 km long Jamuna Multipurpose bridge, a 30-inch gas pipeline has ridden the bridge and reached the western part. A network of pipelines in the western part is now starting to take shape.
Petrobangla markets gas to various customers through its marketing companies. There are now four marketing companies operating in their respective franchise areas. The companies are Titas Gas T&D Company Ltd., Bakhrabad Gas System Ltd., Jalalabad Gas T&D System Ltd., And Pashchimanchal Gas Co. Ltd. The individual details of each company are to be found in the company pages.
Mining became part of Petrobangla operation in 1985 when the erstwhile Bangladesh Mineral Exploration & Development Corporation was merged with Petrobangla. To date, major mineable deposits of coal, limestone, and granite have been discovered in Bangladesh. These are often at a deeper depth than conventionally exploited elsewhere. However, lack of surface or shallower deposits and overall competitiveness against imports has encouraged the development of underground mines to exploit such resources. At present two major mines are operated to extract about 1 million tons of coal and 1. 65 million tons of granite respectively from the Barapukuria Coal Mining Company Limited and Maddhapara Granite Mining Company Ltd.
Production Sharing Contract
But in our survey, we couldn’t find any or none said us about it. Major dwellers said that gas supply is not available all day and night. There was a reason behind it. The surveys were taken in those areas where a gas supply is interrupted. The availability of gas in a day is fully area dependent. In some cases, it’s available for 6 hours, and in some cases, it’s available for 10 hours. The gas crisis is fully seasonal. In winter it becomes drastic due to reducing gas fluidity. In some areas, it creates problems in the rainy season due to water penetration in gas lines. At mid-day, the sufferings are most. During that time maximum industries are in running condition and a lot of gases are needed in the CNG stations. People find out alternative solutions to carry on their works. Some waits for the gas but who are busy in their life has no time to compromise with the supply. LPG is becoming the substitute for NG day by day. Its properties are almost the same as NG and the same types of the stove can be used here. Another way is to use a Kerosene Stove, which is becoming popular due to compact in size and easy carrying system. And last, of all, every dweller wants to escape from this kind of problem. They are ready to expend the money to make the gas supply interruptible.
Conclusions and Recommendation
Conclusions Gas problem exists in some areas of Dhaka city. When someone is dependent or habituated with some sort of supply, it’s become difficult to sustain without it. Another reason for dependency on NG is, it’s very cheap compared with other suppliers of energies. Long term of the problem makes people try to find out the alternatives but those who are new to it are suffered a lot. However little effort of Petrobangla can solve this problem fully and it’s not needed too much cost at all.
Here are some recommendations as a solution to the gas crisis in households. Separate the industry gas lines and CNG gas lines from the household supply lines. First, analyze the capacity of an area then the pipelines should be designed. The metering system should be imposed, which is currently goes on in some areas of Mohammedpur and Lalmatia. Then people will be careful about using the gas. In winter special machinery should be arranged to increase the pressure of the gas. Gas connections shouldn’t be made when the capacity of an area will be fulfilled. Plenty supply of gas alternatives should be arranged where the government is unable to supply natural gas.
Government of Bangladesh, 1997a, Fifth Five Year Plan: 1997 – 2002, Dhaka.