Deaf Culture

Published: 2021-09-28 11:40:03
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Deaf Culture in America
The purpose of this research paper is to answer the major question, what is Deaf culture? There are three sub-questions that will assist in answering the major question:





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What constitutes Deaf culture?
How has American Sign Language impacted the Deaf community?
What are the major issues that are being addressed in Deaf culture today? With these questions answer, it will give a better understanding as to what Deaf culture is and that it is indeed a culture.

The methodology of my research is based off of internet, books, and a survey. My methodology of this paper is clear and simple. It was hard to find a lot of credible sources that should be used in this paper. A survey of one question to the general public in order to prove a point and purpose of this paper. Gallaudet University website has amazing sources to use and also helped guide in choosing the right books/websites to do the research. In this paper there will be a lot of different terms that will confuse the readers.
I will take the time now to go over a few of the terms that will be used in this paper:

ASL (American Sign Language)
Deafhood (Deaf Culture, Deaf pride)
ADA (Americans with Disabilities Act)
Bi-Bi (Bilingual-Bicultural)
CODA (Child of Deaf Adult(s))
NAD (National Association of the Deaf)

I With my research I have found a lot of interesting discoveries. Not only were the books and internet research but with the survey I conducted of one simple question, what is Deaf culture? After asking this question to 50 people I have received some interesting answers that were very surprising.
When people think of Deaf culture they only think of the language that is shared among the Deaf communities. Just like other cultures, Deaf culture is more than just a language shared among others. Deaf culture has been debated on in such that it isn’t a culture and it’s still being debated on today (Padden and Humphries). This paper is intended to educate others about Deaf culture and how it is most defiantly a culture. Most people have not heard of Deaf culture and let alone have met someone Deaf. I hope that this paper will educate those who are unaware of Deaf culture and become more accepting.
Deafness is known to be abnormal in the business world. Business professionals tend to miss read the Deaf communities because of their lack of speech and hearing loss. A lot of Deaf people in general are looked at as someone with a learning disability or might of psychological problems. In a professional setting things are done differently between the “Hearing Culture” and the Deaf culture. In Deaf culture it is alright to turn off and on the lights to get everyone’s attention in a room; this is not okay for a hearing professional (signmedia).
There is a huge gap in knowledge among the general public on Deaf culture (Padden and Humphries). The way Deaf people act in their daily lives may confuse others. Because the general public might think the way Deaf people act is taboo; they think Deaf people have learning, psychological disabilities because it is not normal for 2 them. A lot of people don’t understand how Deaf people have a culture and might make assumptions that Deaf culture doesn’t exist (Wilcox 2-5). My job is to answer that major question; what is Deaf culture?
There are also questions that arise such as, what constitutes Deaf culture? There are two other questions that are very important into explaining the importance of Deaf culture, which is, how has ASL (American Sign Language) impacted the Deaf community and what are the major issues that are being addressed in Deaf culture today? This topic is very important to me because I was raised in the Deaf culture. My entire family is Deaf and have faced many of these questions that hearing people are unaware about. I feel that it is my job to educate when I have the chance to do so.
By being able to educate at least one person, I have done my job. I do not think there is enough information out there to reach everyone’s awareness of Deaf culture. While investigating this topic I will be trying to ask at least 30-50 people; Deaf and hearing, about what they think Deaf culture is. I am very curious as to how many understand Deaf culture and how many Deaf people actually know what Deaf culture is. Deaf culture has been suppressed for many years that even the Deaf people might not know what really makes up Deaf culture.
I also what to get the Deaf people’s take on what they think are the major issues that are being dealt with today and also how they think ASL has impacted their communities (History). I know that everyone will have a different take on these two questions and it is always interesting to see the different answers. I know that these questions and the answer that I get back will make the paper a whole lot more worth reading and understanding from a Deaf person’s perspective.
Deaf culture is very important to the Deaf communities.
Deaf people have for many years fought to have their culture recognized, but still to this day Deaf culture is still being questioned as a culture. I hope that this paper will show those who read this that there is more to Deafness than what meets the eyes. I hope that I am able to help others understand Deaf culture and have a new respect for the Deaf communities around us (Padden and Humphries). Literature Review Rev. Jesse L. Jackson once said, “The problem is not the students do not hear. The problem is that the hearing world does not listen. In 1988, the rally that went on at Gallaudet University, Deaf President Now, set off major awareness of the Deaf communities in the United States. This was the beginning of what would change how people perceived the Deaf communities to be. Although, this was 25 years ago, the Deaf communities are still trying to get the awareness out (Deaf President Now). The Deaf communities are still trying to educate the United States that they are not to be perceived as people with disabilities and are unable to do much, but perfectly able bodies that can do just about anything but hear.
With that being said, the 1988 rally at Gallaudet University paved the way for other Deaf communities in the United States to raise awareness and try to educate others which remains a difficult task to this day. With no language and no culture, there is only isolation which Deaf people will no longer allow (Deaf President Now). Deaf culture has been questioned from time to time. It wasn’t until the rally at Gallaudet University 25 years ago that a light was shone on deafness as a whole. 4 Although Deaf culture was formally recognized in 1965, people still didn’t know much about it (J, Michelle).
The definition of culture explained by Dictionary
The quality in a person or society that arises from a concern for what is regarded as excellent in arts, letters, manners, scholarly pursuits.That which is excellent in arts, manners. A particular form or stage of civilization, as that of certain nation or period: Greek culture. Development or improvement of the mind by education or training. The Behaviors and beliefs characteristic of a particular social, ethnic, or age group: the youth culture; the drug culture. (dictionary. com) The debate still is whether or not Deaf citizens have a culture.
Given the definition above of what constitutes a culture, Deaf culture consists of all of these. The Deaf culture in America, like many other cultures, have a shared language; American Sign Language (ASL) (Padden and Humphries). ASL is used for Deaf people to communicate with one another and also to communicate with hearing people who know of the language. ASL is a visual/gestural language; there is no vocal component to the language. ASL is not a universal language, but other countries do have their own signed languages such as Italian Sign Language, and British Sign Language (J,Michelle).
The use of ASL shares an identification and unity with other Deaf members in communities. Dr. Barbara Kannapel has observed Deaf communities to understand their values, rules, and traditions. She has concluded the following: Deaf communities are supporters of the 5 primary sense of vision for communication at school, in their homes, and in their communities (About American). They value the Deaf children that enter the world as the future of their Deaf culture, it is important to them to have Deaf children to pass on their language.
Continuation of Deaf culture goes through the traditions of their films, folklore, poetry, literature, organizations, and school reunions. These traditions are very important to the Deaf communities and those who have children must pass on their traditions, otherwise they will be judged within their communities (About American). Deaf culture has been looked at as arbitrary because most of their language, ASL, cannot be translated into English. Even though Deaf culture has been somewhat acknowledged, the Deaf people are still fighting to be recognized and respected (J, Michelle).
ASL is a complete and refined language. ASL contains its own grammar, culture, and syntax. The standardized Sign Language can date back in the early seventeen hundreds which supports the ASL’s origins. ASL isn’t a written form of language and cannot be written into English. When translating ASL it is completely different from the English language (J, Michelle). Abbe de l'Epee was from Paris and developed the Old French Sign Language in his Deaf school in 1754 (History). This was the first time that Deaf individuals had a school they could attend and allowed to learn. This was the frame work in the making for ASL.
Meanwhile, in America, Martha’s Vineyard the birth rate of Deaf people where astonishingly high. The Deaf people that lived in Martha’s Vineyard had a genetic code that caused deafness at birth. While there were so many Deaf people living in the area the Martha’s Vineyard Sign Language (MVSL) was created and used in so many households that had Deaf members. Another great man 6 named, Thomas Hopkin Gallaudet is accredited for the promotion of signing methods in America. He later partnered up with Dr. Mason Cogswell to research methods for Deaf children in Europe (History).
Once Thomas had reached American the first Deaf school was opened in 1817, “American Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb. ” It was at this very school that ASL was born and where all different Sign Languages could influence the making of ASL. Today this school is now known as, American School for the Deaf. The children that attended this school later graduated and moved on to opening their own Deaf schools in the United States, influencing the language to thousands of Deaf children and adults. American Sign Language wasn’t always accepted and had some difficult time being accepted within society.
Near the end of the 1800’s the use of oralism was imposed on the Deaf. He didn’t believe that ASL was a language that should be used. He believed the Deaf were being lazy and could learn to speak. With this movement it had hindered the growth of ASL in many Deaf communities across America. Deaf individuals couldn’t use their hands to communicate anymore and had to try their best at speaking for what they wanted. This completely crushed the education and language they were destined to have. They no longer could understand anyone let alone themselves, no language meant isolation (History).
Carol Padden and Tom Humphries are co-authors of the book Inside Deaf Culture. In chapter 6, they show the similarities with the past silent films to the modern day silent Deaf theater. There is no difference within the two but for some reason with the modern society that we live in, its taboo for silent Deaf theater. People do not 7 understand Deaf people in general enough to understand and appreciate the Deaf theater. Deaf theater is part of Deaf culture, when learning the language you have to be able to show gestures which are used in silent films and Deaf theater (Padden and Humphries 123-143).
Deaf people have been pushed in so many different directions with so many people making changes on what they should be doing. The bottom line is; no language and no culture there is only isolation which the Deaf people will no longer allow. With all of these milestones in the history of the Deaf culture, there is only more to come. Abbe de l'Epee was a great man that gave a “voice” to those Deaf people who were silenced by their communities (About American). With the help of Thomas Gallaudet, Gallaudet University would have never set off the major awareness about deafness to America.
Gallaudet University was the place that paved the way for many Deaf Americans to stand up and educate those around them of their language and culture (Deaf President Now). Methodology This research paper is on the topic of Deaf culture in America. The major question that I will be researching is what is Deaf culture? This paper will also be exploring these sub-questions in order to conclude the research paper; what constitutes Deaf culture, how has American Sign Language impacted the Deaf community, and what are the major issues that are being addressed in Deaf culture today?
This topic is very detailed and so many unexplored areas. There will be a few different ways in researching this project. There will be a survey asking the general public and Deaf communities a simple question of, what is 8 Deaf culture. This question will allow me to be able to show the major differences between the two different communities. This research will also be using the Gallaudet University website to do most of my research. With the help of Gallaudet University website, other sources were found. Gallaudet has done so much research on topics today that Deaf communities are facing and also on Deaf culture.
Gallaudet is the best source to receive and find information on this topic and very reliable. I will be answering the following sub-questions: 1. What Constitutes Deaf Culture? Using the dictionary. com for definition of culture shows what is involved within a culture. This definition will better show the true meaning of culture and show that Deaf culture is indeed a culture. Knowing the definition will help others understand Deaf culture. There will be a one question survey asking a mixture of Deaf and hearing people this question to get an idea as to how many know about Deaf culture or the definition of culture. How has American Sign Language impacted the Deaf community? Looking through the history from signgenius. com, will give a better understand how American Sign Language has impacted the Deaf communities. Gallaudet University has also published an article called “About American Deaf Culture” which gives you an insight on the impact it has caused.
What are the major issues that are being addressed in Deaf culture today?
Gallaudet University archives will be assisting in answering this question and also the National Association for the Deaf.
This question will have a long list of items, but this paper will be touching upon the most important topic of today. Once all of these sub-questions are answered, the goal is to get the general public to understand the Deaf community better and understand the meaning of Deaf culture. This research in hope will make others more interested in researching more on their own and answer more of their questions. I have already started to ask questions to the general public and to Deaf communities as I go along. I am collecting my answers and putting them into similar answered piles to make up some kind of percentage I could use in my paper.
I am also researching the Gallaudet University archives for facts on each topic. I will be using the facts I find from Gallaudet University and from the questions that were answered by the people to confirm my findings in my paper. Results This paper is intended to answer the major question, what is Deaf culture? This question is also followed by three sub-questions to help answer my major question:

What constitutes Deaf culture?
How has American Sign Language impacted the Deaf community?
What are the major issues that are being addressed in Deaf culture today?

These sub-questions will also in the end answer many other questions that might arise when reading this paper. The plan is to educate others who are unaware of this topic. Culture has been defined in a way that many believe deafness couldn’t possibly be 10 in its own category of culture (J, Michelle). This paper will be explaining that Deaf culture is indeed a true culture and should be respected just as much as other cultures. What Constitutes Deaf Culture? In order to answer this first question, what constitutes Deaf culture, we need to first look at the definition of culture.
Just like any culture in the world, Deaf culture consists of social beliefs, values, behaviors, literary traditions, and art which are explained above in the definition (About American). A Deaf house hold will have the same way of communication and how they are able to live within a hearing world. Flashing lights will be the first thing noticed within a Deaf house hold. They flash their lights to get attention of another family member or their alarms, doorbell, and telephone are connected to some kind of flashing device. American Sign Language (ASL) is also shared within the Deaf culture.
This language is very important to the way they communicate. This language is very visual 11 and abstract, it’s important to have every detail laid out in the language in order for a Deaf person to understand what is being said (Padden and Humphries 123-126). ASL shares no similarity to English grammatically; it doesn’t share any aspect of English in any way broken, gestural or even mimed. English uses the subject-object-verb while ASL uses topic-comment syntax. Sign language has been developed specific to their communities and isn’t universal (Nakamura).
There are also small communities set up all over for Deaf people to come together and share information or just to have great conversations. These communities are very important to the Deaf culture because there are not a lot of Deaf people living in one area, in order to meet and learn information from each other they have little communities set up and have monthly gatherings. These communities are much like the ones you will find in small villages and tribes but in large industrial societies (Wilcox 2-5). How has American Sign Language Impacted the Deaf Community?
To start out with answering this question I would like to give a little background on ASL just so there is a more understanding as to what ASL is and how it impacted the Deaf communities in America. ASL is a complete and refined language. ASL contains its own grammar, culture, and syntax. The standardized Sign Language can date back in the early seventeen hundreds which supports the ASL’s origins. ASL isn’t a written form of language and cannot be written into English. When translating ASL it is completely different from the English language (J, Michelle).
Abbe de l'Epee was from Paris and developed the Old French Sign Language in his Deaf school in 1754. This was the first 12 time that Deaf individuals had a school they could attend and allowed to learn. This was the frame work in the making for ASL. Meanwhile, in America, Martha’s Vineyard the birth rate of Deaf people where astonishingly high. The Deaf people that lived in Martha’s Vineyard had a genetic code that caused deafness at birth. While there were so many Deaf people living in the area the Martha’s Vineyard Sign Language (MVSL) was created and used in so many households that had Deaf members (History).
Another great man named, Thomas Hopkin Gallaudet is accredited for the promotion of signing methods in America. He later partnered up with Dr. Mason Cogswell to research methods for Deaf children in Europe. Once Thomas had reached American the first Deaf school was opened in 1817, “American Asylum for the Deaf and Dumb. ” It was at this very school that ASL was born and where all different Sign Languages could influence the making of ASL. Today this school is now known as, American School for the Deaf.
The children that attended this school later graduated and moved on to opening their own Deaf schools in the United States, influencing the language to thousands of Deaf children and adults. American Sign Language wasn’t always accepted and had some difficult time being accepted within society. Near the end of the 1800’s the use of oralism was imposed on the Deaf. Linguist believes that ASL wasn’t a language that should be used. They believed the Deaf were being lazy and could learn to speak. With this movement it had hindered the growth of ASL in many Deaf communities across America.
Deaf individuals couldn’t use their hands to communicate anymore and had to try their best at speaking for what they wanted (History). This completely crushed the education and language they were destined to have. They no longer could understand anyone let alone 13 themselves, no language meant isolation. With this isolation came frustration. They were looked at as disabled and unable to function. No one thought anything of a Deaf person, they pushed them in the back of the classrooms and allowed them to sit there all day until school was finished (History). What are the Major Issues within the Deaf Community Today?
There is one major issue that is hitting home for just about all Deaf communities in America. Deaf schools are closing throughout the entire United States. There were 63 Deaf schools in the United States; that is no longer the case (U. S. State). Currently there are about 12 different Deaf schools in the United States that are in jeopardy of closing, 9 of these schools are in New York alone. The cause of these schools closing is the proposal of saving money for each state. These schools are government funded even though they are private schools. The government officials are trying to cut down budget by closing these schools.
They are also proposing that these students from the Deaf school attend the mainstream schools that are in their area. They think it’s as simple as that but it really isn’t. It is hard for a Deaf student to get an interpreter that is willing to stay throughout the entire school year with them (NAD). The advantages of a Deaf school are the following:

Exposure to Deaf culture. Children who are sent to Deaf schools are exposed to the culture and language. It is important that they are exposed to understand who they are and to provide self-esteem.
The environmental learning that surrounds the children is essential to their 4 language. Communication is very vital to any person in the world, being able to speak the same language in school provide a better learning experience.
Deaf schools prevent children from falling into education and social gaps. They are able to learn important life skills just like every other child. Deaf schools that are closed translate into job losses for those that are Deaf teachers. These Deaf teachers are less likely to be hired into a public school (Stop Closing). Another issue has also risen in the year of 2003. This may not be an issue for the general public but it has become an issue for the Deaf communities.

Before explaining this I do want to take the time to share the true passion the Deaf have for their culture. It is true that many Deaf people wouldn’t do anything to change their life, such as being able to hear. They love and accept who they are and embrace their Deafness and their culture (J, Michelle). With that being said, scientists have been able to identify 30,000 genes that make up the human being, this also including genes that cause Deafness. In the mix of all of the new findings colleges and universities all over were starting to offer American Sign Language courses.
American Sign Language courses are among the fifteen most popular taught languages across the United States. With this genetic information doctors and scientists are approaching their goal in being able to identify and correct the gene for Deafness. With this possibility it will most likely eliminate Deafness and American Sign Language. This is a big blow to most Deaf communities across the United States because their culture is very precious to them (Padden and Humphries 163- 15 166). They are not looking to be “corrected” they are looking to be understood by others.
This is causing a lot of doctors to do more examinations of them instead of understanding them at all. Deaf people do not want to be looked at as some kind of science experiment. Each year there are thousands of Deaf children that are getting implanted with a cochlea implant; this helps the eardrum to react to sound. With these implants they hinder the learning process of language because these children are not taught ASL, they are forced to talk instead. These implants are also a big problem when it comes to needed an MRI or even a lifesaving defibrillator.
An MRI or defibrillator could cause the implant to explode and kill the person instantly (163-166). From the above questions stated, there is much to research and so many more questions that may arise. With the research presented in this chapter, the conclusion is somewhat vague but is the building block of what to come in the next chapters of this paper. Again to reinstate the meaning of the word culture once again; culture consists of social beliefs, values, behaviors, literary traditions, and art (J, Michelle). Deaf culture also has the same categories that are stated above.
I hope that this paper will create curiosity and learn more about it. Summary There is a huge gap in knowledge among the general public on Deaf culture (Padden and Humphries). The way Deaf people act in their daily lives may confuse others. Because the general public might think the way Deaf people act is taboo; they think Deaf people have learning, psychological disabilities because it is not normal for them. The purpose of this paper is to educate others that are unaware of the Deaf culture here in America (J, Michelle). Education is power and once people understand more, they are more accepting.
When asking this question I have found some interesting answers and it also supports the purpose of researching this paper. The methodology of this paper is clear and simple. Finding a lot of credible sources satisfies my research paper and also having a one question survey to the general public and Deaf communities in order to support the purpose of this paper. The Gallaudet University website has amazing sources to use and also helped guide in choosing the right books/websites to do this research. Gallaudet also gets a lot of their research and studies from these two authors, Carol Padden and Tom Humphries.
These two authors are very knowledgeable in Deaf culture and how the communities are run; they have taken the time to study the Deaf communities in order to write their books. What really motivated me to do this research is a quote from Rev. Jesse L. Jackson, “The problem is not the students do not hear. The problem is that the hearing world does not listen. ” (Deaf President Now) This quote is sums up the realization that the general public in America are unaware of Deafness and the culture that Deaf people share. In 1988, the ally that went on at Gallaudet University, Deaf President Now, set off major awareness of the Deaf communities in the United States. This was the beginning of what would 18 change how people perceived the Deaf communities to be. Although, this was 25 years ago, the Deaf communities are still trying to get the awareness out. The Deaf communities are still trying to educate the United States that they are not to be perceived as people with disabilities and are unable to do much, but perfectly able bodies that can do just about anything but hear (Deaf President Now).
With all my research I want to be able to share a brief summary as to how I was able to answer these sub-questions I created in order to answer the major question. My research was pretty extensive and it took some time to break it down enough to give a direct answer to each sub-question. What Constitutes Deaf Culture? Dictionary. com has provided the definition of culture in order to answer the important question, what is Deaf culture? Giving the definition of culture is a great base to start off of. Being able to understand the definition will give a better understanding of how Deaf culture fits in the same criteria of any culture.
Deaf culture has been debatable by many as to whether it was considered a culture or not. Just by putting the definition of culture and explaining all the components that make up a culture and how Deaf culture has the same components, already answers the major question but it’s still only half the answer. I have also asked a single question to 50 people on what they thought Deaf culture was. This also supported the fact that the general public is not knowledgeable in this topic. 19 How has American Sign Language Impacted the Deaf Community?
Carol Padden and Tom Humphries have extensive knowledge about Deaf communities and how the impact of American Sign Language has made on Deaf communities. In order to answer this question, it required a brief history review. In order to understand how hard it was for the Deaf to communicate without sign language I believe gives another perspective on how important American Sign Language is to the Deaf communities. Also This helps answers the first sub-question by adding that American Sign Language is part of their culture because it’s a language that is shared throughout the communities and will be passed down to the generations to come.
What are the Major Issues within the Deaf Community Today?
The NAD (National Association for the Deaf) has been reporting on the major issues in the Deaf communities. As of the present day there are not enough Deaf schools around. This is a major problem because language skills, social skills, and the exposure the children get to their culture are very important (NAD). These schools are being shut down due to the fact there is very little knowledge as to how important these schools are to the Deaf communities. This topic is very important to mention because it also answers my first and second sub-questions.
This issue shows how important it is to preserve American Sign Language along with their culture. Children in this generation are having a hard time with being able to be exposed to the Deaf culture because these schools are unable to be open to provide this exposure. In order for schools to stay open the government has to be educated in Deaf culture and their language. Without the knowledge they will continue to make these devastating decisions (Stop Closing). 20 Discussion of Results With this research I have found that the knowledge about Deaf culture in general is very minimal within the United States.
We are aware of Deafness but we are not aware of the culture and the language that represents these people. In the books by Carol Padden and Tom Humphries, they basically summed up how misunderstood the Deaf communities are. Deaf communities are look at as being disabled and in need of help when that is far from the facts. With this paper and the resources I have provided in it will hopefully prompt others to look more into this topic and educate themselves about Deaf culture. In conclusion to this paper, I believe it is safe to say that with more knowledge in this topic the Deaf communities will be able to preserve their culture and be understood more as individual Americans. Deafness is not a weakness it is just a miss component to the five senses. Deafness shouldn’t be considered a disability but as an opportunity.
Work Cited

"About American Deaf Culture. " Gallaudet University . N. p.. Web. 2 Mar 2013. ;http://www. gallaudet. edu/clerc_center /information_and_resources/info_to_go /educate_children_(3_to_21) /resources_for_mainstream_programs /effective_inclusion/including_deaf_culture /about_american_deaf_culture. html;.
"American Sign Language:History. " SignGenius. N. p.. Web. 3 Mar 2013. ;http://www. signgenius. com /american-sign-language/american- sign-language-history. shtml;.
"Deaf President Now. " Gallaudet University . N. p.. Web. 2 Mar 2013. ;http://www. gallaudet. du /Gallaudet_University/About_Gallaudet /DPN_Home/Impact. html;.
J, Michelle. "Deaf Culture Uncovered. " Articlesbase (2008): n. pag. Web. 2 Mar 2013. ;http://www. articlesbase. com/languages-articles /deaf-culture-uncovered-612047. html;.
"NAD Action Alert: Preserve State Schools for the Deaf. " National Association of the Deaf. N. p. , 16 FEB 2011. Web. 3 Apr 2013. ;http://www. nad. org/news/2011/2/nad-action- 22 alert-preserve-state-schools-deaf;.
Nakamura, Karen. "About American Sign Language. " Deaf Resource Library. N. p. , 13 Jul 1995. Web. 3 Apr 2013. lt;http://www. deaflibrary. org/asl. html Padden, Carol, and Tom Humphries.
Inside Deaf Culture. Cambridge, Massachusetts: Harvard University Press, 2005. Print. "Stop Closing Schools for the Deaf. " Deaf Think Tank. N. p. , 27 Sep 2012. Web. 3 Apr 2013. ;http://deafthinktank. org/stop-closing-schools -for-the-deaf/;.
"U. S. State Residential Schools for the Deaf. " Deaf Education. N. p. , n. d. Web. 3 Apr 2013. ;http://www. deafed. net /PageText. asp? hdnPageId=105;. Wilcox, Sherman. American Deaf Culture: An Anthology. Burtonsville, Maryland: Linstok Press, 1989. 2-5. Print.

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